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Solar Water Pump Livestock

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Resources for Persons Self Focus Energy Bioenergy

Introduction:

In the energy scenario present most of the population lives in rural areas with electricity, which is the main obstacle to the development of rural areas. Increased consumption conventional fuel, with environmental degradation has led to the development of renewable energy sources. Therefore, it is necessary to provide renewable electricity these areas in a decentralized manner. Renewable energy is the most feasible solution because they are endless, inexhaustible and environmentally sustainable. The villages are important sources of renewable energy such as biomass, solar, wind, etc. The problem with the variable nature of these resources can be partially overcome by the installation of any major individual plants or adding renewable energy storage and conversion and / or integration. (Kansa Patil et al. 2008, 2002 Rajvanshi AK Ravindranath NHet. PR Shukla, 2004 and 2008)

  1. Rank resources is of great help in revealing their status and help in conservation measures and ensures a continuous supply to meet energy demand. The evaluation of the potential of bioenergy can be academic, technical or economic. Sukla (2008) reports that despite the rapid growth of commercial energy, biomass remains the main source of energy in rural and traditional, and contributes to one third of energy in India. For development in a rural area of the solution is the use sources, which is in the same people who are not commercial energy sources. These sources can be used effectively by taking gasifier, biogas plants, solar panels, planting trees, etc. that will provide a home ray and in the streets, fuel for cooking and heating water motive force, energy, irrigation pumps, etc. for the use of energy resources and non-commercial use a new rural good planning is essential. (2008 S. Chauhan, S. Chauhan et al. 2004, Ericsson et al. 2006 LS Esteban et al. 2008 G. Fischer et al. Al 2001 and Fuchs MRET. 2005)

This work has mainly focused on the discovery of potential Agrow, dung and biomass available in the village for electricity generation. Taking into account the views of the study was made with the objective to assess the potential biological resources "Village Nimbhora and suggest planning for renewable energy people themselves enough energy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Assessment of biomass resources

Field observations based on direct interviews of households and methods aa held in the city to pick up the potential of biomass available. supply of biomass energy was mainly based on statistics land use and yield of various crops, plantations and forest biomass and productivity of animal waste available.

Village information

The study was conducted in Nimbhora in Akola district of Maharashtra state. It is 20 km from Akola. The main crops in the village have been cotton, sorghum, soybeans, mung beans, pigeon peas, etc. gram total population of the village is composed of 170,951 households. Detailed information on each family was obtained through personal interaction with people. It was noted the total geographical area of 1443.38 hectares was Nimobhora and acreage is 1352.8 hectares. The whole area of arable irrigated there was no irrigation facility in the region.

Biomass from agricultural residues and

The area and biomass production of each culture influences the potential of agricultural waste biomass. The yield of a crop according to season and variety in an area has been achieved average returns of previous years. The equivalent of the energy of these residues was taken on the basis of what would be obtained if they are subjected to more efficient processes of energy conversion. Some of the waste used available as fuel, while others used as fodder, and the others were in the field of recycling of nutrients. Energy from agricultural residues (E1).

E1 = energy from agricultural residues (kcal)

consumption production Total waste = agro - by agricultural waste

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1: wheat from the chaff ratio of different cultures.

 

Culture

Grain / Straw

Cotton

3 t / ha

Soybean

1:01

Jawar

1:03

Lazy

1:04

Gram

1:1.3

Green gram

1: 1.3

Maize

1:04

Sunflower

1:02

Source: Dubey et al. (2009)

calorific value of the crops have taken a series of numbers 3000-3650 kcal / kg, the value heat for cotton, pigeon pea and sunflower were taken from 3500, 3000 and 3650 kcal / kg, respectively.

The biomass of land Forest

The potential of forest biomass depends on the type of forest cover and its distribution. The biomass production varies depending on the type forest. Firewood forest collected each year by the house of the contiguous forest area has been taken with the energy equivalent. The total energy of forests (E2) was calculated

Forest energy E2 = (kcal)

= Wood collected - Annual consumption of wood in the house working

 

Biomass from cattle (animals)

The herd of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats were collected from respondents of the interaction of staff. Was taken as 12-15 kg / animal / day for buffalo, 3.0 to 7.5 kg / animal / day for cattle, 0.1 kg / animal / day for sheep and goats. The total manure is calculated by multiplying annual production of manure per year and the number of heads of different animals. Assuming yields of 0036-0042 m3 of biogas per kg of dung Cow Buffalo / the total amount of gas available was estimated. The total energy of livestock (E3) was calculated

E3 = Energy livestock (kcal)

= Cow dung total collected - by the direct consumption of dung cake

 

 

 

Table 2: Performance Dung, the performance of the equivalent energy of biogas for livestock.

Livestock type

Case

Dung yield kg / animal / day

M3 biogas yield

equivalent energy kcal/m3

Buffalo

High

15

0.042

5300

Under

10

0.036

5300

Cattle

High

7.5

0.042

5300

Under

3

0.036

5300

Goat

High

0.1

0.042

5300

Under

0.1

0.036

5300

Sheep

High

0.1

0.042

5300

Under

0.1

0.036

5300

Total biomass sources available from different sectors are calculated by aggregating energy calculated from different sectors (forestry, agricultural residues, livestock) and given by

availability Energy =? (E1 + E2 + E3)

model of energy use village

In this study, patterns of energy consumption survey village have been studied. All activities related socio-economic energy consumption were collected. The energy use in homes, the lighting of the population, the use of tractor diesel engines combined, the use of petrol for two-wheelers and small units of agricultural processing were collected.

The energy density of people

The energy density was calculated for people to know the potential energy available per hectare. The total production of electricity from all possible sources biomass was determined using the calorific value of biomass. This means that the energy density is the total energy available from potential sources of biomass in a particular area. The formula for calculating energy density was taken as

Total potential energy (kWh)

ED = ------------------------------------------------ --------------

total geographical area the village (ha)

When ED is the energy density in kWh per hectare

biomass generator size energy selection

The size of the generators of biomass has been decided on the basis of available biomass quantities and the overall efficiency of conversion and decided calculated using the following formulas.

X = number of heating energy x conversion

Generation (kWh) value of the efficiency of biomass

This relationship is focused primarily on the total energy production system. The size of the generator output (crop residue basis) can be calculated by the following equation.

Energy Production (KWh)

Size of the generator power (kW) = ---------------------------------------- - - ---

annual operating hours (h)

The sizes calculated for the digester is producing electricity using the following equation:

Energy Production (kWh) = biogas xx thermal conversion efficiency

Hours of operation per day and therefore the production system than the entire year based on Digester energy is determined for the calculation. The size of the generator biogas used was calculated using the following equation.

Generation (kWh)

Size of the generator power (kW) = ---------------------------------------- -

hours annual operating (h)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Biological Resources Nimbhora people potential was assessed according to the availability of surplus renewable energy planning for the people themselves enough power and was carried out in this chapter.

Status of biomass in the village

The potential of biomass, demand and the structure of energy consumption in the villages was calculated from available data. Most manure was obtained in the village of oxen, cows, buffaloes and calves 189, 123, numbers 25 and 113 respectively.

It was observed that manure 11644.5 of q is available in the village of Nimbhora and between residues cultivation of cotton used are the main sources of biomass contributes about 5531.8 q (Table 3 and Figure 1). pigeon pea and sunflower have also been important sources of biomass in the planning of energy self-sufficiency strategy respective peoples.

Table 3: Status of biomass in the village of Nimbhora

 

No. Mr.

biomass source

Total quantity (q)

1

Manure

11644.5

2

Cotton

5531.8

3

Lazy

503.56

4

Sorghum

3827.1

5

Green gram

339

6

Sunflower

471.5

7

Gram

718.7

8

Soybean

1139.62

9

Corn

1899

Fig. 1: State of the biomass in the village of Nimbhora

bioenergy sources cattle

In this study, information on all bioenergy resources are collected and presented in Table 4 shows information on the production and use of manure in the town. Q 11644.5 was found that manure Cattle is available in a year 2973 consumption and the surplus available qq 8670, to help meet the demand of the people through an appropriate system conversion to renewable energy.

Table 4: Use and excess manure from cattle in the village

 

Number of animals

Dung available (q)

Total consumption (q)

Surplus (q)

526

11644.5

2973

8671.5

Collection and surplus resources in the village

The people address all sources of biomass have been obtained for determining the capacity of biomass. At the same time the consumption of biological resources of personal interaction with the villages have collected. Applications of the energy needed for cooking and the domestic sector has been met pigeon pea, cotton and sunflower residues. A large quantity of waste and surplus are in the villages. cattle manure and cotton waste as biomass have been large surpluses in the village.

Table 5 shows the details of the annual availability of waste agricultural products, production, consumption and the surplus in the village. Q It was found that cattle manure 8671.5 and 1197.5 agricultural waste residues q cotton surpluses were found (Fig. 2).

Table 5. Collection, use and power over the people

 

biomass source

Collection (Q)

Consumption (Q)

Surplus (q)

Cattle dung

11644.5

2973

8671.5

Cotton

5531.8

4334.3

1197.5

Soybean

1139.6

1139.6

0

Sorghum

3827.1

3827.1

0

Lazy

503.5

426

77.5

Corn

1899.2

1899.2

0

Gram

718.74

718.74

0

Sunflower

471.5

347

124.5

Fig. 2: Collection, consumption and excess energy in the population

 

Consumption biological resources and energy in the village

Detailed Summary of energy consumption for various key activities (Biomass and allies of energy) has been performed in this investigation. Table 6 shows the details of electricity consumption households, factories, processing, consumption by street lamps, schools, Gram Panchayat, churches, post offices, office etc. There were only three factories of available land in the village. There were 170 households in the village. The land of people who enter the way salt Nimbhora, most agriculture rain has been and there was no irrigation facility.

Table 6: The annual electricity consumption in the village Nimbhora

 

Household kWh (A)

kWh Agro processing plant (B)

School of the street lamp and several offices of the temple in the village (C) kWh

Total A + B + C (kWh)

85,410

10,585

5372.8

101,367.8

Fig. 3: annual consumption of electricity in the village Nimbhora

Table 6 shows the outlook for energy Electric use various operational in the village. It was noted that the annual consumption of electricity in the village becomes 101,367.8 kWh (Fig. 3).

About 7800? diesel consumed annually for the operation of the tractor and 4562? needed gas for vehicles available in the village. The settlers used 10 motorcycles for transportation. Kerosene and LPG used as fuel for lighting and cooking purpose in the village which is in Table 7.

 

 

 

Table 7: The annual consumption of liquid fuels and LPG Nimbhora

 

Parameter

Number

Diesel?

Gasoline?

Kerosene?

LPG cylinders or refills

motorcycle

10

-

4562

-

-

Tractor

3

7800

-

-

-

Kitchen and Lighting

-

-

-

5352

-

Kitchen

-

-

-

-

187

biomass energy available

Information on the amount of biomass resources Nimbhora available in the village is given in Table 8. Agricultural residues such as cotton, pigeonpea, soybean, etc. dung are the main resources of biomass available in the village. To calculate the capacity of electricity generation from biomass resources, the calorific value of biomass have been considered (Fig. 4). Taking into account all the excess quantities of biomass, the total energy in the village turned be 727,539.82 kWh.

Table 8: The energy available from biological resources of the excess biomass

 

biomass source

Quantity (Q)

The total energy available is possible, kcal

Energy Production kWh

Cotton

1197.5

419097000

487,322

Lazy

77.5

23268000

27055.8

Sunflower

124.5

45442500

52840.11

Manure

8671.5

137876850

160,321.91

Total kWh energy production potential

727,539.82 kWh

Fig. 4: bio-energy available from biomass resources surplus

He realized that the Energy consumption has been found to lower the energy available in the biological resources of the population. The ratio of production electricity from biological resources for energy the village was approximately 7:1.

This means that the energy used by the villagers found much less than the biomass produced in the village. Also realize that the gasification system based on the generation of electricity and biogas energy project for the production of alternative energy can generate electricity in the village. A proposed renewable energy system will have no impact on the ecological cycle of biological resources of the people.

biomass gasifier and digester

capacity of electricity from waste Agricultural

The planning system designed to produce electricity at the village was the first step. Good Planning reduces system cost and future costs of electricity generation. The excess biomass in the village was waste availale cotton, the waste residues of sunflower and pigeon pea cattle manure. The producer of overall conversion efficiency of gas production according Electricity was reported by 17%. The total installed capacity of power generation based on production system Gas found that 35 kW (Table 9).

 

 

Table 9: production potential energy with an installed capacity of gasifier.

 

Energy from cotton, pigeon pea and sunflower residue kWh

The total installed capacity

96427.00

35

production capacity of electricity from livestock waste

The cow manure is the main source for the production of organic vital energy in the village. The total amount of manure surplus available in village was 8671.5 q year. The overall conversion efficiency of biogas-based electricity production is reported 25% (biogas into electricity). Given the surplus Cattle manure size 15 kilowatts of power generating digester was estimated based Nimbhora village.

Table 10: energy possible with installed capacity improves the autoclave.

 

livestock manure surplus (Q)

Energy (kWh)

Total kW Capacity

8671.5

40080.47

15

Village plant

The sizes of energy generation have been decided the total energy production in one year. Table 4.9 The vision of the overall situation of electricity production. Taking into account the conversion efficiency gasification and digestion system based on the energy production of green electricity within a year. The total energy the potential installed capacity of 136,507.47 kWh generator proved.

Table 4.9: Size of the energy of with biomass energy production per year.

 

KW gasifier

kilowatt digester

KWh of energy gasifier

Energy kWh digester

Total kW of installed

kWh of energy Total

35

15

96,427

40080.47

45

136,507.47

 

CONCLUSIONS

The study revealed that the village had considerable excess of biological resources. Among the biological resources, cotton waste and livestock manure contributed surplus bioenergy significantly. Based on the state of bioenergy, sustainable management and technical options discussed helping to optimize the available bioenergy and building a sustainable energy. The proposed renewable energy system to reduce the burden on existing resources, freeing people to get enough energy. In the village of Nimbhora, the availability of bioenergy and demand for computing power have shown that people can be self-sufficient in energy. It was found that the surplus of cotton waste 1197.5 available with quantity q in a year and therefore provide the main resources of the village. A large number of cattle manure was available in town. Availability of cattle manure was considered Q in one year 8671.5 With the addition of the application of biological resources, was also observed that biological resources produced in the city was surplus.It found that the energy demand of the people becomes 101,367.8 kWh. The use of surplus Bioenergy in the village had a production capacity of electricity until 727,539.82 kWh. The ratio of the availability of biological resources demand represent the status of biological resources and is 7:1. clearly indicates that the biological resources in the village was completed. They realized that the system of renewable energy production based on gasification and biogas adapted the village of biological resources that have no impact ecological cycle of biological resources. The total size of the power generator power system proposed shall be renewable 50 kW Nimbhora people.

References:

[1] S. Chauhan (2008) Evaluation of development resources sustainable surplus biomass potential for power generation in the State of Haryana, India. Journal of Energy Innovation and Entrepreneurship (5): 1928-1943.

[2] S. SBRI Chauhan and CS (2004) Assessing the availability of biomass for power generation Utteranchal talukas in selected state. ENVIS Bulletin: 1-6.

[3] DJ A. and S. electricity Gangil (2009) Status availability of surplus biomass. Progress in the use of biomass for power generation, CIAE Bhopal site. 25.

[4] Ericsson. LJ and Nilson (2006) Evaluation of tenders potential of biomass in Europe using an approach based on resources. Biomass and Bioenergy Vol 30: 1-15.

[5] LS Ciria and P. Esteban Corrasco JE, (2008) An assessment of relevant factors and methodological approaches to the topography of Agriculture sustainable forest biomass for energy production by product: Recognition biomes sustainable biological resources of three (3): pp. 910-928.

[6] G. Fischer and L. Schrattenholzer (2001) potential of bioenergy by 2050. Biomass and Bioenergy 20 (3): 151-159.

[7] Fuchs, RP, Frears, C. (2005) and assessment of biomass invenstory bioenergy: an assessment of the resources of organic matter for bioenergy production in Washington State. Available www.ecy.wa.gov.co.in.

Patil [AB 8] Kanas, RP Saini and MP Sharma (2008) integrated renewable energy electrification of the grid in remote rural areas: renewable energy and environment for sustainable development, on page 169.

[9] Rajvanshi AK (2002) talukas can help achieve a critical mass for sustainable development in India. Vol current science. 82 No. 6, p. 632-637.

TV [10] Ramachandra, Kamakshi G. and state Shruti BV (2004) Bioresearch Karnataka. Review of renewable energy and sustainable. 8 (1): 1-47.

[11] NH Ravindranath, HF Somashekar, S. Dasappa Jayasheela and CN Reddy (2004) of biomass energy for sustainable rural India: a case study of gasification biomass for the electrification of the village. Vol current science. 87 No. 7, p. 932.

[12] PR Shukla (2008) of biomass for energy India: Policy and prospects. energy E2 + Analytics environment. www.ezanalystics Available at:. com.

 

 

About the Author

S.R.Kalbande1, A.K.Kamble2 and Dr.C.N.Gangde3 Department of Unconventional Energy Sources and Ele.Engg. Faculty of Agricultural engineering and Technology Dr.Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth,Akola,Maharashtra E-Mail: surendra_kalbande@rediffmail.com